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Digital media and activism bibliography

The aim of this page is to keep all my key bibliographic references and web resources on digital media and activism in one place. It’s somewhat rudimentary, I know, but it’s also fast, easy to update, open access and Google friendly.

See also my bibliography bookmarks on, Researching social media blog entry and Digital Protest curating over at

Any further suggestions? Please send them via Comments below, email or Twitter to @JohnPostill.

First version published 14 Sep 2010
Last updated 9 Oct 2015


On 9 Oct 2015 Laurence Cox wrote via the listserv “The German-language Institut für Protest- und Bewegungsforschung has put together a really useful list of resources on social movements research, primarily in German / from the German-speaking countries but not only”:

Conference on Information Politics, Digital Culture & Global Protest Movements – April 4th 2014 – King’s College London, via Paolo Gerbaudo:

#Socialmedia and #development annotated bibliography via @socialmedia4D

#Activism, Digital Activism and #Hacktivism bibliography by @purescapism via @Liberationtech #socialmedia

Digital #activism and organizing: research and reading list, via @liberationtech #protest #socialmedia

Activism, Advocacy, and Social Movement Resources (Public List) Part of Philip Napoli’s literature review on public interest media and communications activism and advocacy within the U.S. and abroad.

Museum of Social Media Exhibit: Protest Catalysts/ The e-State.  This double exhibit includes content related to the use of social media as protest-spark, from the Arab Spring to Occupy Wall Street, but also as a tool of 21st-century government, from the police to the President.

Digital Activism Reading List, Meta-Activism Project

Free culture -RBOSE

***Key terms in social media and social networking

E-Activism Bibliography

Digital Citizenship blog

Wiley: All Titles in Social Movements / Social Change (33)

Internet and Democracy Project, Berkman Center, Harvard

Mayo Fuster Morell’s site (1)…

… and site (2)

… see esp. readings for: “When do new social media and political activists converge/match?”

Cuneyt Gurcan Akcora: Microblogging and Twitter bibliography

Social Media course (MCO494) at Arizona State University

Social Media : Annotated Bibliography, Lucy How

Social Media and Technology Bibliography, University of New Hampshire

Annotated Bibliography on Social Media Analysis (2007)

Center for Social Media (CSM),  American University

State of the art research on social networks and social media (Wikipedia), Sorin Matei×8

Meta-Activism Project

The Anthropology of Hackers course, Gabriella Coleman

Cyberspace Ethnography: Political Activism and the Internet

Social Media: 20 free e-books about social media:

Social Media: Research, see:, a bibliography from communication, information science, anthropology, sociology, economics, political science, cultural studies, computer science, etc.

Twitter research The Free and Open books on this list are excellent resourcs:


PAPER: @fuchschristian, “Reflections on Castells’ ‘Social Movements in Net Age'” …


European Debt Crisis, NYT Topics


Ryan M. Milner, Ph.D. Candidate, The University of Kansas (via AoIR list):  I think this article is a must read, even though it focuses on YouTube videos:

* Shifman, L. (2011). An Anatomy of a YouTube Meme. New Media & Society. Dr. Shifman has a nice discussion of the meme/viral distinction in that article. She has other work forthcoming on memes as well. Also, here are two great papers on image macros:

* Kuipers, G. (2002). Media culture and internet disaster jokes: Bin Laden and the attacks on the World Trade Center. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 5(4), 450-470.

Kuipers, G. (2005). “Where was King Kong when we needed him?” Public discourse, digital disaster jokes, and the functions of laughter after 9/11. The Journal of American Culture, 28(1), 70-84.

Dr. Kuipers never actually uses the word ‘meme’ (fewer did back then), but gives an indepth analysis of ‘internet collage jokes’. Last, it’s not out yet, but this book dives into the meme/viral question some too:

Jenkins, H., Ford, S., & Green, J. (in press). Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture.

de Mauleón, Hector 01/09/2012 De la red a las calles Presentamos en este número una crónica de la gestación del movimiento #YoSoy132 en las redes sociales [de Mexico]. Que sepamos, es la primera crónica del contagio viral de una movilización política hecha desde las nuevas herramientas cibernéticas. ¿Cómo sucedió esto? Esta es la historia rastreada tuit a tuit y día a día por Héctor de Mauleón.

Menczer, Filippo 2012 The diffusion of political memes in social media: keynote abstract …


| September 17, 2012 How Occupy birthed a rhizome [keywords: Castells, social change, coordination, multiple channels, reproduction, situationists, propagation, community, direct action, from moment to movement]

Papers from Collective Intelligence 2012 Conference Now Online, By Leslie Brokaw – 4/23/12

Rheingold, H. Smart Mobs (collective behavior)

Rheingold, H. @hrheingold: “Mobile Media & Political Collective Action” 2008 (PDF)


Delicious bookmarks by everybody on Arab Spring and social media:

Khamis, Sahar; Vaughn, Katherine 2012. `We Are All Khaled Said’: The potentials and limitations of cyberactivism in triggering public mobilization and promoting political change. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, Volume 4, Numbers 2-3, 20 March 2012 , pp. 145-163(19)

Opening Closed Regimes, What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring? by Philip N Howard, Allen Duffy, Deen Freelon, Muzammil Hussain, Will Marai, Marwa Mazaid

Free special issue #ArabSpring & European protests #indignados #socialmedia #activism #15M #occupy

Social Media & The Arab Spring CeDEM12 Paper.pdf The historical context and the role of Aljazeera Satellite Station

@courtneyr 2012 “Unveiling Revolutionaries: #Cyberactivism & Women’s Role in #ArabSpring (via @liberationtech)


…watch this space


David H. Slater, Nishimura Keiko, and Love Kindstrand, “Social Media, Information, and Political Activism in Japan’s 3.11 Crisis,” The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 10, Issue 24, No 1, June 11, 2012.


Bibliography of digital activism and civic engagement in Indonesia

Bibliography of internet activism and social protest in Malaysia

Nugroho, J. 2012. Clicktivism and the real world. Social media tools are only effective if they can engage people off-line.

Postill, J. 2014. A critical history of internet activism and social protest in Malaysia, 1998-2011. Asiascape: Digital Asia Journal 1-2: 78-103.


See relevant list of readings from Workshop: Understanding the New Wave of Social Cooperation: A Triangulation of the Arab Revolutions, European Mobilizations and the American Occupy Movement
March 21st, 2012, Harvard University- Cambridge, MA (Boston)

Occupy Research is an open, shared space for distributed research focused around the Occupy Movement. We are sharing ideas, research questions, research methods, tools, datasets, and working to gather, analyze, discuss, write, code, and otherwise develop the theory and practice of occupy research together.

Understanding the Occupy Movement: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. This forum is designed to bring together  essays, critical commentary, and eventually research of social scientists on the Occupy Movement. As analyses and “spin” of Occupations grow, we confront the sort of public issue to which a social science response is urgently needed. Accordingly, the BJS has organized this forum addressing the underlying social, political, and economic issues surrounding Occupy and its broader implications.

Global Voices, #Occupy Worldwide: A series of global protests against economic inequality and corporate greed calling for the “occupation” of different cities, banks, and public squares began in September 2011 with “Occupy Wall Street” in New York City. Soon after, similar demonstrations were organized across the United States and also around the world. It’s a decentralized and leaderless movement, inspired by uprisings in Egypt and Spain, and organized by citizens who use online media avidly. The primary slogan – “We are the 99%” – refers to the 1% of the U.S. population who control nearly a quarter of the wealth.

Delicious bookmarks by everybody on Occupy and social media:

Tweeting #OWS. Emory Libraries’ Archive of Occupy Wall Street Tweets

Bernhardt, Brian 2012. Horizontal Democracy: Anti-Authoritarian Interventions in Democratic Theory

Lessons from #Occupy in Canada: Contesting Space, Settler Consciousness and Erasures within the 99% more

Caren, N. and S. Gaby 2011. Occupy Online: Facebook and the Spread of Occupy Wall Street, October 24, 2011

Chomsky, N. 2012. America’s Declining Empire, Occupy and the Arab Spring.  According to Chomsky, America’s declining power is self-inflicted. April 24, 2012

Gaby, S. and N. Caren 2012. Occupy Online: How Cute Old Men and Malcolm X Recruited 400,000 US Users to OWS on Facebook Social Movement Studies

Lennard, Natasha. 2012. Monday, Sep 17, 2012  What happened to Occupy? A year after Zuccotti Park, participants discuss what it means,

Sidney Tarrow, “Occupying America: Lessons for Social Movement Theory
On April 30 2012, 3-5pm in the Theatre

Joe Winkler 2012. On the Resurgence of Occupy Wall Street: Five Must-Read Books. Posted: 05/15/2012 4:30 pm

Occupy Wall Street explained (diagram)

Wittkower, D.E. 2012. Facebook Activism and the #Occupation. What a defense of slacktivism and the politics of “awareness raising” can tell us about the #occupation movement. Contributed by Dylan E Wittkower Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Old Dominion University. 7 May 2012.

Zuckerman, Ethan 2012.  Understanding Digital Civics, September 3, 2012 – 2:15pm


15Mpedia. ¿Qué es 15Mpedia? 15Mpedia es una enciclopedia libre sobre el 15M y forma parte del proyecto

See relevant list of readings from Workshop: Understanding the New Wave of Social Cooperation: A Triangulation of the Arab Revolutions, European Mobilizations and the American Occupy Movement
March 21st, 2012, Harvard University- Cambridge, MA (Boston)

Delicious bookmarks by everybody on 15M and social media:

Delclós, C and Viejo, R (2012) ‘Beyond the Indignation: Spain’s Indignado’s and the Political Agenda’, Policy & Practice: A Development Education Review, Vol. 15, Autumn 2012, pp. 92-100.

Feenstra, Ramón Andrés, and Andreu Casero-Ripollés. “Nuevas formas de producción de noticias en el entorno digital y cambios en el periodismo: el caso 15-M.” Comunicación y hombre: revista interdisciplinar de ciencias de la comunicación y humanidades 8 (2012): 129-140.
Haro Barba, Carmen and Víctor Sampedro Blanco.The new social movements in Spain: the Protests for the Right to Housing as an immediate predecessor of the 15M Movement, . Keywords: crowd, cyber-crowd, cyber-democracy, network society, social movements, Spain, elections, Web 2.0.

Holmberg, Sarah 2012. The Spanish Revolution: “– They call it democracy and it is not.” A study on the 15-M movement in Spain. Uppsala University.

The encampments are a new form of protest that can be considered as differentiating the 15-M from other social movements, or it could be regarded as a typical example of an innovating protest method. However, in combination with the new and fast forms of communication it marks as an undefined social movement structure.

** Llamalo Y. 2013. La historia de los ciberactivistas pioneros. Entrevista con Carlos S. Almeida, David Casacuberta y Mercè Molist, fundadores de Fronteras Electrónicas.

Monterde, Arnau 2011. MA thesis…. Open University of Catalonia.

Monterde, A. and J. Postill 2014. Mobile ensembles: The uses of mobile phones for social protest by Spain’s indignados. In G. Goggin and L. Hjorth (eds.) Routledge Companion to Mobile Media. London: Routledge.

NPR 2012. Spain’s Crisis Leads To Rise Of Grass-Roots Groups

Palat, R.A. 2012 Indignados in perspective: Is Social Democracy irrelevant in a Post-Industrial Era in the West? Notes Internacionals, CIBOD.

Postill, J. forthcoming. The multilinearity of protest: understanding new social movements through their events, trends and routines. In Othon Alexandrakis (ed). Method Acting: The Anthropology of New Social Movements. Zone Books (MIT Press).

Postill, J. in press. Spain’s indignados and the mediated aesthetics of nonviolence. In P. Werbner, K. Spellman-Poots and M. Webb (eds) The Political Aesthetics of Global Protest: Beyond the Arab Spring. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Postill, J. forthcoming. Public anthropology in times of media hybridity and global upheaval. In S. Abram and S. Pink (eds.) Media, Anthropology and Public Engagement. Oxford: Berghahn.

Postill, J. in press. Fields as dynamic configurations of practices, games, and socialities. In V. Amit (ed.) Thinking Through Sociality: An Anthropological Interrogation of Key Concepts. Oxford: Berghahn.

Postill, J. 2014. Democracy in an age of viral reality: a media epidemiography of Spain’s indignados movement Ethnography 15 (1): 50-68.

Postill, J. 2013. We are the 1%: rethinking national elites as protest participants. Reviews & Critical Commentary (CritCom), 26 November 2013.

Postill, J. and S. Pink 2012. Social media ethnography: the digital researcher in a messy web. Media International Australia 145 , 123-134.


Agit-Pub Tácticas y recursos para la comunicación social, 2007, Persiguiendo la “V” de Vivienda

ANDREU ACEBAL, Marc. Moviments socials i crítica al ‘model Barcelona’. De l’esperança democràtica de 1979 al miratge olímpic de 1992 i la impostura cultural del 2004. Scripta Nova. Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona, 1 de agosto de 2008, vol. XII, núm. 270 (119). <;

Anon. Quién es quién en el movimiento Copyleft.

Col.lectiu Investigacció (2005) Recerca Activista i Moviments Socials. El Viejo Topo: Barcelona.  ISBN: 84-96356-19-1

Fernández-Savater, Amador y Leónidas Martín Saura 2009 FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) sobre la fuerza del anonimato. [JP comment: Uncannily prescient about #15m, including 13-M precedent]

Fuster Morell, M. (Ed.) (2009) Organizational principles and political implications of free culture: A reader. International forum on free culture – Barcelona October 30 2009.

Fuster Morell, M. (2010). Participacion en communidades online y democracia radical. En  Angel Calle. Aproximaciones a la democracia radical. Icaria Editorial. Forthcoming.

Marí Sáez, Víctor Manuel Internet y jóvenes desde una perspectiva sociocultural. Crítica, ISSN 1131-6497, Año 59, Nº. 963, 2009 (Ejemplar dedicado a: Los nuevos jóvenes II: La generación vulnerable) , págs. 69-74.

Miró i Acedo, Ivan EL QUART IMPULS [Cooperativisme_Treball immaterial_Creativitat_Territori]

ROCA, M. (2007). ” Les Noves tecnologies i les mobilitzacions socials. El software lliure com a model contracultural : comunitat, hacking i establishment “. Tripodos. Núm. extra 2007. Pàg. 139- 150.Elisenda Ardevol suggests:

Sobre el tema puedes ver las publicaciones de la gente de cibersomosaguas:

las publicaciones de ATIC-UOC Isarel Rodríguez,,

Los papeles del observatorio de cibsersociedad, hay foros y papers sobre el tema

La revista FQS

Blanca Callen tiene su tesis sobre el tema:


Treré, E. (2013). “#YoSoy132: la experiencia de los nuevos movimientos sociales en México y el papel de las redes sociales desde una perspectiva crítica”. Educación Social. Revista de Intervención Socioeducativa, número 55, p. 112-121.[#YoSoy132: The experience of the new social movements in Mexico and the role of social media from a critical perspective]. Disponible aquí:

Treré, E. and Barranquero, A. (2013). De mitos y sublimes digitales: movimientos sociales y tecnologías de la comunicación desde una perspectiva histórica [On myths and digital sublimes: social movements and communication technologies from a historical perspective. Revista de Estudios para el Desarrollo Social de la Comunicación (, 8, 27-47. ISSN: 1696-2079. e-ISSN: 2255-5919. Disponible aquí:

Treré, E. and Cargnelutti, D. (2014) “Movimientos sociales, redes sociales y Web 2.0: el caso del Movimiento por la Paz con Justicia y Dignidad, Communication & Society/Comunicación y Sociedad, vol 27, n. 1, pp. 183-203. [Social movements, social media and Web 2.0: The case of the Movement for Peace with Justice and Dignity] Disponible aquí:

Oscar Grillo sobre Mapuches en red


Annual meeting of the Italian Political Science Association, Panel on “Emotions, Social Movements, and Political Protest”, Rome, 13-15 September 2012

Research on social movements in recent years has been characterized by two main “paradigms.” A first strand of scholarship has looked at the impact of certain features of the institutional contexts and the political opportunities stemming from them, often in a structural perspective. A second strand of works has brought culture back in the analysis of social movements, for example by inquiring into the role of framing processes and collective identities. While the latter certainly contributed to balancing what some have called the “structural bias” in social movement research, it has largely focused on the cognitive dimension at the expense of the affective dimension. The aim of this panel is to investigate into the role of emotions in social movements and protest politics. The latter is not only rational politics, but also “passionate politics.” Emotions are intense during protest activities, and social movements might be emotionally charged, positively or negatively. All this is likely to influence the emergence, forms, and outcomes of protest. Yet, research on the emotional dimension of social movements is still rare.

Bakardjeva 2012.Mundane Citizenship: New Media and Civil Society in #Bulgaria … via @mediacciones #socialmedia #activism

Bakardjeva 2012. Online Discussion Spaces as Rational and Carnivalesque, ECREA conference.  #Bakhtin #Habermas #publicsphere #socialmedia #democracy

In the current environment, an important question is the evaluation of the deliberative quality of online discussion spaces. Mainly, hopes for rational critical debate in such spaces have been disappointed: nothing close to the Habermasian ideal has been observed here, and it needs to be understood why this is the case.

But the approach in such studies has almost always been top-down, deductive, starting with the Habermasian ideal and finding these spaces lacking; perhaps the very norms proposed by Habermas also need to be questioned in such work. More attention must be placed on actual, embodied, lived interests; the abstract, disembodied, rational subject which the model assumes must be replaced by a more realistic perspective.

The model privileges rational discourse, but even the early modern public spaces which Habermas describes were not only spaces of such discourse, but of a multiple, incomplete, heteroglossia. As Bakhtin has pointed out, indeed, language is a living discourse which is imbued with historical and cultural significations; it is characterised by speech genres that are situation-specific, and communicative rationality is perhaps just one speech genre amongst others. How it interacts with other speech genres then also becomes important.

Dahlgren, Peter n.d. Internet and the Democratization of Civic Culture

The starting point for my reflections here is a schematic distinction within a democracy between the formal political system, with its institutional structures, laws, parties, elections, etc., and a complex, multi-dimensional civic culture, anchored in everyday life and its horizons. Civic culture both reflects and makes possible this democratic system, while at the same time it is dependent upon the system for its institutional guarantees and parameters.

Goldfarb, Jeffrey C. 2011 Reinventing Political Culture: The Power of Culture versus the Culture of Power [Paperback]

Interface volume 3 issue 1: Repression and social movements

International Socialism 2011. Social media and social movements Issue: 130. Posted: 4 April 11

Kouki, H. and E. Romanos 2011. Protest Beyond Borders. Contentious Politics in Europe since 1945. Berghahn.

Krøijer, Stine 2010. Figurations of the Future: On the Form and Temporality of Protests among Left Radical Activists in Europe, Social Analysis, Volume 54, Number 3, Winter 2010 , pp. 139-152(14)

Maeckelbergh, M 2009.  The Will of the Many: How the Alterglobalisation Movement is Changing the Face of Democracy. Pluto Pres. URL =

Treré, Emiliano 2012. Social Movements as Information Ecologies: Exploring the Coevolution of Multiple Internet Technologies for Activism, International Journal of Communication, Vol 6 (2012)


Atwood, Amanda and Bev Clark (Kubatana Trust of Zimbabwe). New media, same old regime politics: Resisting the repression of media freedom in Zimbabwe

Benkler, Yochai 2012: Blueprint for Democratic Participation. May 10, 2012 What you see is a complex relationship between NGOS & commercial organizations, between V.C.’s & activists, b/w traditional media & online media, between political media left & right and tech media, all weaving together a model of actually looking, learning, mobilizing for action, and blocking [SOPA]. This, ideally, is the shape of the networked public sphere. – Prof. Yochai Benkler

Beyer, Jessica . On Mon, Jun 11, 2012 at 8:29 AM, Kendall, Lori wrote:

I am pleased to announce the recipient of AoIR’s first annual Dissertation Award. The author of the award-winning dissertation, titled “Youth and the Generation of Political Consciousness Online,” is Jessica L. Beyer. Beyer received her PhD from the Department of Political Science at the University of Washington in 2011 and is currently a post-doc in the Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington. Her dissertation examines political mobilization occurring on non-political websites and defines three attributes important to such mobilization: degree of anonymity, formality of site regulation, and opportunities for small-group interaction.

Bräuchler, B. (2005) Cyberidentities at War: Der Molukkenkonflikt im Internet. Bielefeld: transcript.

Castells, Manuel. Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Clark, Jessica, and Nina Keim.Public Media 2.0 Field Report: Building Social Media Infrastructure to Engage Publics. Rep. Center for Social Media (American University), 2009.

Dahlgren, Peter (2009) Media and Political Engagement. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Drew, Jesse From the Gulf War to the Battle of Seattle: Building an international alternative media network. In At A Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet . Edited by N. Neumark and A. Chandler. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.

Gaffney, Devin (2010). #iranElection: quantifying online activism. Proceedings of the WebSci10.Raleigh, NC April 26-27th.

Gerbaudo, Paolo 2012. Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism [Paperback]

GRANJON Fabien et CARDON Dominique, Médiactivistes, Presses de Sciences Po, 2010.

Hampton, K.N. (2003) ‘Grieving for a Lost Network: Collective Action in a Wired Suburb’, The Information Society 19: 417-428.

Hauben, Michael and Ronda Hauben. (1997). Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.

Index on Censorship 2012. Special issue on global fight for digital freedom  #socialmedia #netfreedom v @danmcquillan

Jang, S. Mo and Y.J. Park 2012 The internet, selective learnign and the rise of issue specialists.  Using national survey data (N = 1,208) in the U.S., the present study found that individuals relying upon the Internet translated their interest in the health care issue into issue–specific knowledge. However, those who depended on network TV, newspapers, and radio failed to display a high level of issue–specific knowledge, even when they were interested in the issue. The findings suggest that the Internet plays an important role in fostering issue specialists rather than generalists.

Joyce, Mary (ed.) Digital Activism Decoded. Idebate Press. Free download here.

Juris, J.S. 2008. Networking Futures: the Movements against Corporate Globalization. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Karanović, J. 2010 Contentious Europeanization: The Paradox of Becoming European through Anti-Patent Activism, Ethnos

Lievrouw, Leah 2011. Alternative and Activist New Media. Polity

MARCUS, GEORGE E. (ed.). Connected: engagements with media (Late Editions 3). viii, 442 pp., illus., map, bibliogrs. Chicago, London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996.

MARCUS, GEORGE E. (ed.) Cultural producers in perilous states: editing events, documenting change (Late Editions 4). viii, 408 pp., illus., map, bibliogr. Chicago, London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1997.

New communications and demonstrations workshop, July 2011, Sociology of Media Group,

Nugroho, Y.2011. Citizens in @action: Collaboration, participatory democracy and freedom of information – Mapping contemporary civic activism and the use of new social media in Indonesia.

Postill, J. (2008) Localizing the internet beyond communities and networks. New Media and Society 10 (3), 413-431

Postill, J. in press Localizing the Internet: An Anthropological Account. Oxford and New York: Berghahn. See draft Introduction.

** (important) Segerberg & Bennett 2012, “Social Media & the Organization of Collective Action”

Starbird, Kate and Leysia Palen 2012 (How) Will the Revolution be Retweeted? Information Diffusion and the 2011 Egyptian Uprising,

Subirats, J. & Fuster Morell, M. (2010). En y desde Internet. Participación política y Espacios virtuales. En Robles, Jose Manuel (Coord). Practicas políticas y nuevas tecnologias: Un acercamiento a la idea de democracia digital. Monográfico para Arbor. Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura. CSIC. Forthcoming.

Terranova, Tiziana 2004 Network Culture: Politics For the Information Age

In this beautifully written overview of the socio-political dynamics of networks, Terranova describes the shift from representation to modulation (in both images and ideas, a technic that foregrounds the communicator’s agenda by replacing positions with explicit expressions of vectors for change), and the accompanying shift away from identity politics – replacing the difference/position couple with mutation/movement in open systems. She explores the “hydrodynamic” potential of the internet to channel images and meanings through a segmented and capillary system of communication, in which the spectators no longer form an amorphous mass, but operate instead in a fractal ecology of social niches and microniches.

Turner, Fred. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Watson, Tom (2008) CauseWired: Plugging In, Getting Involved, Changing the World. “Journalist Tom Watson explores where technology and social action meet in this new release. Coining the phrase “CauseWired”, Watson describes a movement that’s tapping the web in creative ways to generate interest in activism-from organizing to raising funds.” (The Business Review; 1/9/09)


Casilli, Antonio A. and Tubaro, Paola, Why Net Censorship in Times of Political Unrest Results in More Violent Uprisings: A Social Simulation Experiment on the UK Riots (August 14, 2011). Available at SSRN:

Coleman, Gabriella 2011. Hacker Politics and Publics. Public Culture 2011 Volume 23, Number 3 65: 511-516:

Coleman, Grabriella 2012. Hacklabs and hackerspaces – tracing two genealogies #2: Bio/Hardware Hacking · Peer reviewed papers ·

This article examines some of the attributes that mark geek and hacker politics as distinct from other domains of digitally based activism and offers an introductory framework to assess their political significance.

Elkin-Koren, Niva. Exploring Creative Commons: a Skeptical View of a Worthy Pursuit in The Future of the Public Domain (P. Bernt Hugenholtz & Lucie Guibault, eds., Kluwer Law International, 2006).

1st Free Culture Research Workshop, Sapporo, 2008.

2nd Free Culture Research Workshop, Harvard Law School, 23 oct 2009.
See also

3rd Free Culture Research Conference [sic]: October 8-9 2010, Berlin

Free Culture – Turn Left

Free Culture Movement – P2P Foundation

Karaganis, Joe (ed) Media Piracy in Emerging Economies is the first independent, large-scale study of music, film and software piracy in emerging economies, with a focus on Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Mexico and Bolivia.

Based on three years of work by some thirty-five researchers, Media Piracy in Emerging Economies tells two overarching stories: one tracing the explosive growth of piracy as digital technologies became cheap and ubiquitous around the world, and another following the growth of industry lobbies that have reshaped laws and law enforcement around copyright protection. The report argues that these efforts have largely failed, and that the problem of piracy is better conceived as a failure of affordable access to media in legal markets.

Kelty, C. (2008) Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Lindgren, S. and R. Lundstrom 2011 Pirate culture and hacktivist mobilization: The cultural and social protocols of #WikiLeaks on Twitter,

Lovink, Geert (2010) “After the Critique of Free and Open: Alternative Platforms and Revenue Models”

Geert Lovink’s keynote, “After the Critique of Free and Open,” focused on the practical aspects of a free culture, and a need for the movement to shift from making legal demands and instead focus on the platforms and revenue models that could support the kind of culture we’re striving towards.

Terranova, Tiziana ‘Free Labour: producing culture for the digital economy’ Social Text 18.2 2000, 33-58,
Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy

Thomas, Douglas. (2002). Hacker Culture. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.


Hine, Christine (2000), Virtual Ethnography, London: Sage.

Markham, Annette N. and Nancy K. Baym (Eds.) (2009). Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage. See notes.

Miller, Daniel & Slater, Don (2000) The Internet : an ethnographic approach. Oxford: Berg.

Postill, J. 2010. ‘Researching the Internet’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 16 (3)

Rogers, R. (2009) The End of the Virtual: Digital Methods. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA


Anderson, Chris (2006). The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion

Bell, Genevieve: Anthropological Perspective on Social Media (video)

boyd, danah 2009. Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. UC Berkeley Ph.D. Thesis,

boyd, danah, and Nicole Ellison (2007) “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, no. 1,

Carton, S. (2009, July 16). Social Media Timeline. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from

Sean Carton is chief strategy officer at idfive in Baltimore. He was formerly the dean of Philadelphia University’s School of Design + Media and chief experience officer at Carton Donofrio Partners, Inc. This article gives the historical development of Social Media (Lucy How)

Chapman, C. (2009, October 7). The History and Evolution of Social Media. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from

Chapman has a review of the history and evolution of social media from its Precursors to Social Media right up to present day on the website (LH).

Cox, A., Clough, P. & Marlow, J. (2008) “Flickr: a first look at user behaviour in the context of photography as serious leisure.” Information Research 13 (1),

Crawford, Kate. (2009). Following you: Disciplines of listening in social media. Journal of Media & Culture Studies, 23 (4), 525-535. (journal article)

Dobie, I. (2004) ‘The music industry versus the Internet: MP3 and other cyber music wars’ in D. Gauntlett and R. Horsley, eds, Web Studies, Second Edition (London: Arnold)

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), article 1.

Gibson, R.K. 2010 ‘Open Source Campaigning?’: UK Party Organisations and the Use of the New Media in the 2010 General Election.

Haewoon, Kwak, Changhyun, Lee, Park, Hosung, and Moon, Sue. (2010). What is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media?. 19th International World Wide Web (WWW) Conference.Raleigh, North Carolina April.

Herwig, Jana. (2009). Liminality and Communitas in Social Media: The Case of Twitter. Internet: Critical. Internet Research 10.0.Milwaukee October 7-10. (conference paper)

International Telecommunication Union. (2010, July). The rise of social networking. Retrieved September 28, 2010, from

This article is about the rise of social networking and how it is changing the lives of people and how it is changing the Web. ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services (LH).

Jansen, Bernard, Zhang, Mimi, Sobel, Kate, and Chowdury, Abdur. (2009). Twitter Power: Tweets as Electronic Word of Mouth. Journal of ASIS&T, 60(9), 1-20. (journal article)

Jarrett, Kylie, Interactivity is Evil! A critical investigation of Web 2.0  First Monday, Volume 13, Number 3 – 3 March 2008

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.This article provides some clarification on the term ‘Social Media’. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content (LH)

Kavanaugh, A., Yang, S., Sheetz, S. Li, L.T., and Fox, E.A. 2011. Between a rock and a cell phone: Social Media Use during Mass Protests in Iran, Tunisia and Egypt. ACM Trans. Of CHI. (date) pages.

Ojala, M. (2008) Social media, information seeking, and generational differences Online, 32(2), 5-5.

O’Reilly, T. (2005, September 9). What Is Web 2.0. Retrieved Sept 15, 2010, from article is O’Reilly’s attempt to clarify the term Web 2.0 which was brought up for discussion in a conference hosted by O’Reilly Media and MediaLive in 2004 where the definition of the “Web as Platform” was outlined (LH)

Oulasvirta, Antti, Lehtonen, Esko, Kurvinen, Esko, and Raento, Mika. (2009). Making the ordinary visible in microblogs. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. Online first. Special issue on Social Interaction and Mundane Technologies (journal article)

** Pavlik, John V. 2012 Trends in New Media Research: A Critical Review of Recent Scholarship, Sociological Compass

Prieur, C., et al (2008) The strength of weak cooperation: A case study on flickr, Feb 2008. http://arx

Scholz, Trebor. Trebor Scholz and Paul Hartzog: Toward a critique of the social web

Scott, D. M. (2008) Afterthought: Asking the Right Questions About Social Media, Econtent, 31(10), 64-64

Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Press.

Shirky, Clay. “Shirky: Social Software and the Politics of Groups.” Clay Shirky’s Internet Writings. 08 Sept. 2009 <>.

Social Information Filtering: Algorithms for Automating “Word of Mouth” (1995)

Stolley, K. (2009). Integrating Social Media Into Existing Work Environments The Case of Delicious. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 23(3), 350-371.

Using collaborative filtering to weave an information tapestry (1992)

Weinberg, D. (2008). Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder. Holt (tagging and knowledge)

Yardi, S. and D. Boyd Dynamic Debates: An Analysis of Group Polarization Over Time on Twitter,

Zittrain, Jonathan. (2008). The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Progressive work on social movements and politics (generally):

Hage, Ghassan 2012 “Critical Anthropological Thought and the Radical Political Imaginary Today.” In Critique of Anthropology 32(3):285-308.
McLagan, Meg, and Yates McKee 2012 Sensible politics : the visual culture of nongovernmental activism. New York: Zone Books.
Feher, Michel, Gaëlle Krikorian, and Yates McKee 2007 Nongovernmental politics. New York; Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Books.
Dehaene, Michiel, and Lieven de Cauter 2008 Heterotopia and the City: Public Space in a Postcivil Society. London; New York: Routledge.
David McMurray and Amanda Ufheil-Somers 2013 The Arab Revolts: Dispatches on Militant Democracy in the Middle East.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
On methods:
Marcus, George E. 2012 “Classic Fieldwork, Critique and Engaged Anthropology: Into the New Century”.  Anthropological Journal of European Cultures.  21(2): 35-42.
—. 2008 “The End(s) of Ethnography: Social/Cultural Anthropology’s Signature Form of Producing Knowledge in Transition. Cultural  Anthropology 23(1): 1-14.
Hale, Charles R. 2008 “Activist Research v. Cultural Critique: Indigenous Land Rights and the Contradictions of Politically Engaged Anthropology’.   Cultural anthropology 21(1): 96-120.
Faubion, James and George E. Marcus 2009 Fieldwork Is Not What It Used to Be: Learning Anthropology’s Methods in a Time of Transition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. especially: Kim Fortun – “Figuring out Ethnography”
James D. Faubion – “The Ethics of Fieldwork as an Ethics of Connectivity, or The Good Anthropologist (Isn’t What She Used to Be)”
Falzon, Mark 2009 Multi-Sited Ethnography: Theory, Praxis and Locality in Contemporary Social Research.  London: Ashgate. especially: Kim Fortun – “Scaling and Visualizing Multi-sited Ethnography”
Faubion, James D. 2011 An Anthropology of Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Films and other items:
Razsa, Maple 2010 Bastards of Utopia.  Documentary Educational Resources. Cambridge, MA.
3 Comments leave one →
  1. April 19, 2011 10:03 pm

    Wonderful resource, John. Terima kasih!

  2. April 19, 2011 10:06 pm



  1. Researching social media: preliminary readings « media/anthropology

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